Dark Stories

The New King!

Table of Contents


This article/post is an attempt at a historical account of the UK’s royal family from William the Conqueror to Charles I.

It highlights the stories of betrayal, ambition, murder, and power struggles that shaped the monarchy. The video covers several monarchs and notable events, including the Norman Conquest, the War of Roses, the Tudor dynasty, the rivalry between Elizabeth I and Mary Queen of Scots, and Charles I’s execution, which led to the formation of a republic.

The New Monarch of United Kingdom

King Charles III was just crowned the King of the United Kingdom, which is composed of England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

As such, he is the head of state of these four countries, and he has certain ceremonial and symbolic duties associated with each of them.

In addition, King Charles is also the head of the Commonwealth, which is a group of 54 member states, most of which are former British colonies or territories.

However, his role in the Commonwealth is mainly ceremonial and symbolic, and he does not have any direct political authority over these member states.

Let’s learn a little bit more about his heritage and history.

Monarchs of England since 1702

Let’s look at the list of Kings and Queens who were the rulers of England from about the time the British East India Company started it’s ‘business’ within the Indian Subcontinent.

  1. Queen Anne: 1702-1714
  2. King George I: 1714-1727
  3. King George II: 1727-1760
  4. King George III: 1760-1820
  5. King George IV: 1820-1830
  6. King William IV: 1830-1837
  7. Queen Victoria: 1837-1901
  8. King Edward VII: 1901-1910
  9. King George V: 1910-1936
  10. King Edward VIII: January-December 1936
  11. King George VI: 1936-1952
  12. Queen Elizabeth II: 1952-2022
  13. King Charles III: 2022-present (as of May 2023)

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The Story of the British (UK) Royalty


Read below if you just want the information

Information mentioned in the video article

King Charles’ Bloodstained Crown | The Untold Story of UK Royals

SourceLink to video

It (The British Empire) was built on the blood of murdered relatives, the sweat and blood of slaves and colonial subjects, and by some accounts, the premature deaths of 100 million Indians because of British policy.


The history of the UK Royals is a story of power, violence, and ambition.

From the Norman Conquest of 1066 to the present day, the history of the monarchy is filled with betrayals, murders, and looted colonies. The Meghan Markle scandal may have made headlines, but the story of the UK Royals is far more scandalous than many realize.

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William – 1066 – 34 generations ago

It all began with the arrival of William in Britain in 1066. William and his army defeated Harold, the king of England, in the Battle of Hastings. William was crowned King on Christmas Day in the year 1066 at Westminster Abbey. Charles, the current King, is separated from William by 34 generations.

The history of the UK Royals is filled with betrayals, murders, and looted colonies.

Henry – may have killed his nephew the king

Many historians believe that William’s younger brother Henry killed William II, who was hunting in Southern England when he was killed by his own noble. Henry secured the treasury in Winchester and rushed to London, where he made himself king.

In the UK Royal history, betrayals and murders were not uncommon.

jon – 1199 – killed his 16 year old nephew

King Jon, who took the throne in 1199, had a rival – his brother’s son named Arthur. Jon ordered his 16-year-old nephew and rival’s eyes and genitals to be removed. When the jailer refused to carry out the cruel act, Jon personally murdered his nephew and threw his body into a river.

war of roses – 30 year civil war

Cut to the 15th century, one of the bloodiest chapters in English history was unfolding – The War of Roses. It was a 30-year ruthless and barbaric civil war between the House of Lancaster and the House of York.

edward iv first york king – killed his brother george

After the York’s won, Edward IV, their King, grew suspicious of his brother George the Duke of Clarence, and imprisoned him. He drowned George in a pot of wine.

the next king – made edward iv’s sons vanish

In 1483, Edward IV died, and his successor, his 12-year-old son, also named Edward, was heading to London when his uncle stopped him. He put Edward and his brother in the Tower of London, and nobody has seen them since. The murderous uncle made himself king, but decades later, two skeletons were found in the tower. Did they belong to Edward and his brother? No one knows.

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Henry vii (house of tudor) – executed 57000

Henry VII, one of the monarchs of the House of Tudor, executed around 57,000 people in 36 years, which is around four people per day.

elizabeth i – executed rival mary, queen of scots

Elizabeth I, his daughter, had a rivalry with Mary, the Queen of Scots. Elizabeth imprisoned Mary for 18 and a half years and executed her in 1587.

Mary’s execution was a gruesome affair, taking three swings of the ax to behead her. This event is often cited as one of the darkest moments in British history, and has been compared to the brutality of the Game of Thrones.

James vi son of mary of scots becomes king james i

After Elizabeth’s death, the throne passed to James VI of Scotland, who became James I of England. James was the son of Mary Queen of Scots, the same woman whom Elizabeth had executed.

Era of colonialism starts

This was a significant moment in British history, as it marked the beginning of the Stuart dynasty and the start of a new era of colonialism.

Charles i (17th century) delusional

In the mid-17th century, Charles I became king of England. Charles was a delusional ruler who believed that he had been appointed by God. When the parliament disagreed with him, he went to war, but was defeated in 1645 and executed three years later.

This event was a turning point in British history, as it marked the end of the monarchy and the beginning of a republic.

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charles II 1660

However, this was short-lived, and in 1660 the monarchy was restored with the coronation of Charles II.

With the restoration of the monarchy came a new era of colonialism, as Britain began to expand its empire across the globe.

The economic model – Profit from Slavery

Over the next few centuries, Britain would invade around 90% of all countries, becoming the superpower of the 18th century. The economic model that sustained this empire was slavery, and Britain perfected it.

Although they did not start the slave trade (that would be Portugal and Spain), they transported around 3.4 million Africans to their colonies. Of these, 2.7 million reached their destination alive, while the rest perished. This was all done with royal approval, as Charles II had institutionalized slavery during his rule.

Today, the current king of Britain, Charles III, is carrying the burden of this legacy.

His direct ancestors bought slaves in Virginia, and yet there has been no apology for this dark chapter in British history.

The real Legacy – Murder, Slavery, Colonial Loot

Looking back, it is hard to know what to make of this Empire and this Throne. It was built on the blood of murdered relatives, the sweat and blood of slaves and colonial subjects, and by some accounts, the premature deaths of 100 million Indians because of British policy.

The Loot

The impact of the British monarchy on the world is hard to overstate. It is estimated that they took resources worth 45 trillion dollars, which is 15 times Britain’s current GDP, from India alone.

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Impact of the Royal Follies

The entire world has had to pay for the Royal Family’s mistakes, as seen in the first world war. The three rulers of the major powers during the war, George V of England, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, and Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, were all cousins. Their rivalry ended with the death of 20 million people.

Recap – Royal Legacy – Murder & Plunder

This flashback is a necessary reminder of the real history of the British throne, the blood they spilled, the innocents they executed, and the lands they plundered.

The throne is soiled by cruelty and ruthlessness, and it is important to acknowledge this history in order to move forward.

The British monarchy continues to have a powerful influence on the world, and it is up to us to hold them accountable for their actions, have their current Royal generation, their government, acknowledge the atrocities and demand justice for the victims of their past.

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Dark Stories

British – Traders to Rulers & Looters

Table of Contents


  • Learn more about how the British ravaged India for almost 200 years.
  • The British came to India as traders but soon became rulers. They exploited India’s resources, people, and culture for their own benefit.
  • The British imposed heavy taxesfamineslaws, and wars on India. They also divided India into religious and ethnic groups to weaken its unity.
  • The British took away India’s wealtharteducation, and freedom. They also destroyed India’s industriesagriculture, and environment.
  • The British left India in 1947 after a long struggle by the Indian people. But they left behind a legacy of povertyviolence, and injustice that still affects India today.

What were the British doing in India?

The British arrived in India in the early 17th century, primarily as traders – specifically as the British East India Company who were interested in establishing trade routes and developing profitable business opportunities.

Initially, the British East India Company, which was granted a charter by Queen Elizabeth I in 1600, focused on trading in textiles, spices, and other luxury goods that were highly valued in Europe.

Learn More

Over time, the British East India Company expanded its influence and power in India, establishing trading posts and building alliances with local rulers.

Top Image source – Map of British India, 1914 (NZ Ministry for Culture and Heritage)

How did the British go from traders to rulers?

The British East India Company gradually transitioned from being a trading company to a political and military power in India.

The company began to take on administrative and military roles in India, and by the mid-18th century, it had established de facto control over many parts of the country.

During the 19th century, British rule in India became more formalized, and the British East India Company was replaced by the British Raj, a colonial government that was established in 1858 after the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

Under British East India Company’s rule, India was transformed in order to support the profit of the British and the company. Economically, politically, and socially, with the introduction of new technologies, infrastructure, and systems of governance all designed to extract every single resource which they monetize for the monarchy.

The British rule in India was characterized by exploitation, discrimination, and violence, and it had a profound impact on Indian society and culture.

Indian nationalists and reformers began to call for independence from British rule in the early 20th century, and India finally achieved independence in 1947, after decades of struggle and resistance.

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There were several strategies that the British East India Company used to achieve this, including:

Military conquest

The British East India Company used its military power to conquer Indian states and expand its territory. The British East India Company recruited Indian soldiers and trained them in European military tactics, which gave them an advantage over Indian armies that were still using traditional methods of warfare.

The British East India Company also used a divide-and-rule policy, exploiting existing tensions and conflicts between Indian states to weaken them and make them easier to conquer.

Diplomacy and alliances

The British East India Company also used diplomacy and alliances to expand its power in India. The company established friendly relations with some Indian rulers and formed alliances with them against other Indian states.

The British East India Company also made use of Indian intermediaries, such as local traders and bankers, to build relationships and gain influence.

Economic control

The British East India Company gained economic control over Indian markets by establishing a monopoly over certain goods, such as opium, and by imposing tariffs and taxes on Indian trade. This allowed the company to generate revenue and control the Indian economy.

Cultural influence

The British East India Company also had a significant impact on Indian culture and society. The company promoted the English language, education, and Christianity, which helped spread British cultural influence in India. This also had the effect of eroding traditional Indian culture and values.

The British East India Company used a combination of military, political, economic, and cultural strategies to gain power in India and establish British rule.
East India Company – LOOTED India with impunity Source

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The dark side to these strategies

There was a sinister and a dark side to the strategies used by the British East India Company to establish its rule in India. Using the same areas as above:

Military conquest

The British East India Company’s military campaigns often involved violence, brutality, and massacres.

For example, the company’s conquest of Bengal in the late 18th century was marked by atrocities such as the massacre of the inhabitants of the city of Patna.

Diplomacy and alliances

The British East India Company’s alliances with Indian rulers often involved corruption and coercion. The company would bribe or threaten rulers to gain their loyalty, and would then use them to subjugate other Indian states.

Economic control

The company’s economic policies had a devastating impact on Indian industries and agriculture. The imposition of extremely high tariffs and taxes on Indian trade, as well as the company’s control over certain goods, led to the impoverishment of Indian farmers and artisans.

The British East India Company’s monopoly over opium production also had a damaging effect on Indian society, as it led to widespread addiction and social disruption.

Cultural influence

The British East India Company’s promotion of English language, education, and Christianity had a negative impact on Indian culture and society.

Traditional Indian knowledge systems and languages were marginalized and denigrated, and Indian society was forced to adopt Western cultural norms and values.

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Source – The total loss in Indian lives -conservatively over 25+ million

There were several famines that occurred, some of which were caused or exacerbated by the policies of the British East India Company.

Conservatively, over 25+ million Indian lives were lost aided greatly by the policies of the British East India Company – sanctioned by the British crown


Here is a list of some of the major famines that occurred in India during this period:

Bengal Famine of 1770

This was one of the deadliest famines in Indian history, which occurred during the early years of the British East India Company rule in India.

It is estimated that the famine resulted in the deaths of over 10 million people, or about one-third of the population of Bengal at the time.
Bengal Famine – Source

The famine was caused by a combination of factors, including crop failures, extremely high taxes collected with the use of force, and the forced export of food grains to Britain.

Evidently, this had a significant impact on the American Boston Tea Party. (Warning – the following account has graphic famine related accounts)

Madras Famine of 1782-83

This famine occurred in the Madras Presidency (present-day Tamil Nadu) and was caused by a severe drought. It is estimated that the famine resulted in the deaths of around 5 million people.

The commodification of grain and the cultivation of alternative cash crops during the period; exorbitant taxes are also believed to have played a part in causing the famine, along with the export of grain by the colonial government

and some were reduced even to cannibalism.

Meanwhile, Queen Victoria had been crowned Empress of India, and a grand celebration was underway, with over 60,000 guests and exquisite food and wine.


Viceroy Lord Lytton is believed to have overseen the export of 325 million kilograms of wheat to England while the Indian population was under the ravages of the deadly famine.

Chalisa Famine 1783-84

The Chalisa famine occurred in the year 1783-84 in the Chalisa region of present-day Uttar Pradesh in India. The exact death toll from the famine is not known, but it is estimated that around 11 million people died due to starvation and disease.
Doji bara famine of 1791-92

This famine occurred in the areas of present-day Maharashtra and parts of Gujarat, and was caused by crop failures and drought. It is estimated that the famine resulted in the deaths of around 11 million people.
Bengal Famine of 1943 (after the British Govt took over)

This famine occurred during the Second World War and was caused by a combination of factors, including crop failures, the forced recruitment of laborers by the British, and the diversion of food grains to support the war effort.

It is estimated that the famine resulted in the deaths of at least 3 million people.

To be fair – it’s worth mentioning that while the policies of the East India Company definitely point to heavily contributed to most of these famines, they were not the sole cause.

Many of these famines were also caused by natural factors, such as droughts and crop failures.

Nonetheless, the policies of the British East India Company, including the imposition of high taxes, introduction of cash crops for the company’s benefit and the forced export of food grains, undoubtedly worsened the impact of these famines on the Indian population.

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Some of the sources (in addition to the Wikipedia articles linked to above):

  1. Bengal Famine of 1770:
  • Davis, M. (2002). Late Victorian holocausts: El Niño famines and the making of the Third World. Verso Books.
  • Sen, A. (1981). Poverty and famines: An essay on entitlement and deprivation. Oxford University Press.
  • Biswas, A. K. (1975). Famine in Bengal, 1770-1771: A study in administrative response. Cambridge University Press.
  1. Madras Famine of 1782-83:
  • Davis, M. (2002). Late Victorian holocausts: El Niño famines and the making of the Third World. Verso Books.
  • Maharatna, A. (1996). The Madras famine of 1782-83: A case of government failure? The Indian Economic & Social History Review, 33(1), 1-24.
  1. Doji bara famine of 1791-92:
  • Davis, M. (2002). Late Victorian holocausts: El Niño famines and the making of the Third World. Verso Books.
  • Kulkarni, S. S. (1963). The Doji bara famine of 1791-92 in Maharashtra. Indian Economic and Social History Review, 1(3), 289-306.
  1. Bengal Famine of 1943: (after the British Govt took over)
  • Sen, A. (1981). Poverty and famines: An essay on entitlement and deprivation. Oxford University Press.
  • Guha, R. (1990). An agrarian history of South Asia. Oxford University Press.

Please note that these sources may contain different estimates of the number of deaths caused by the famines vs what’s reported in Wikipedia, as there is often disagreement among historians and scholars about the exact number of people affected; which obviously would be embarrassing if widely discussed in today’s world. However, they provide a good starting point for further research on the topic.

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Did any key people help this transition ?

Robert Clive

Robert Clive, also known as Clive of India, was a key figure in the British East India Company’s expansion of territorial control in India in the mid-18th century – especially from traders to rulers.

Clive first arrived in India in 1744 as a clerk in the East India Company. He rose through the ranks quickly, and by the 1750s, he was serving as a military commander in the company’s wars against Indian rulers.
Robert Clive – Source

Clive’s military campaigns, which included victories at the Battle of Plassey in 1757 and the Battle of Buxar in 1764, helped establish British control over large parts of India.

In addition to his military achievements, Clive was also involved in the company’s internal politics and governance in India.
Robert Clive helped East India Company Plunder India – and got his share of the LOOT.

He served as Governor of Bengal twice, from 1757-1760 and from 1765-1767, during which time he implemented a number of important reforms in governance and administration.

Clive’s legacy in India is complex. While he is often credited with establishing British control over India, his military campaigns were marked by violence and brutality, and he was criticized for his role in the corruption and exploitation of Indian resources and wealth. He also faced criticism in Britain, where he was accused of corruption and abuse of power.

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Other Notable British East India Company Employees

There were several other East India Company employees who rose to power in India and played important roles in the company’s expansion of territorial control and exploitation of India’s resources and wealth.

Warren Hastings

One such figure was Warren Hastings, who served as the Governor-General of India from 1774-1785. Hastings was involved in several military campaigns in India, including the First Anglo-Maratha War, and he also implemented a number of important administrative and legal reforms during his tenure.

However, he was also criticized for his role in the corruption and exploitation of Indian resources, and he faced impeachment proceedings in Britain in 1787.

Richard Wellesley

Richard Wellesley, served as the Governor-General from 1798-1805.

Wellesley was responsible for implementing the company’s policy of “subsidiary alliances,” which involved forming alliances with Indian rulers in exchange for control over their foreign relations and military forces.

This policy allowed the British East India Company to expand its territorial control in India without the need for direct military conquests, but it also contributed to the weakening of Indian states and the loss of their sovereignty.

Lord Dalhousie

Lord Dalhousie, served as the Governor-General from 1848-1856 implemented a number of important reforms in infrastructure, communication, and law, but also contributed to the annexation of several Indian states; and Siraj-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Bengal who was defeated by Clive in the Battle of Plassey and whose deposition marked the beginning of British rule in Bengal.

The British East India Company’s rule in India was marked by exploitation and abuse of power, and many of its employees and officials were involved in corruption, violence, and the plundering of India’s resources and wealth.

While some individuals may have also made important contributions to governance and administration, their actions were ultimately overshadowed by the company’s overall legacy of exploitation and oppression.

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Get the real story – read review and not the popular sanitized narrative – Buy book

For more of a summary check out –

Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India

and for a more detailed account read

An Era of Darkness: The British Empire in India

by the same author

Review of MJ Akbar’s book Source Buy the book
History Stories

The Dental Health Story

Table of Contents


Below is an overview of the history of dental health and hygiene, tracing its development from ancient times to the modern era. It explores various cultural practices and beliefs about dental health, as well as the evolution of scientific understanding and technological advancements in dentistry.

The post highlights the importance of dental hygiene in preventing oral diseases and maintaining overall health.

The post also highlights the history of dental health from across the world from ancient to modern times and the adoption of dental hygiene practices and how some had to overcome cultural resistance.

Why is dental health or hygiene important?
  1. Prevention of Tooth Decay: Good dental hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing help to remove plaque and bacteria from the teeth and gums, preventing the formation of cavities and tooth decay.
  2. Prevention of Gum Disease: Poor dental hygiene can lead to the buildup of plaque and bacteria, which can cause gum disease. Gum disease can cause gum recession, bone loss, and eventually tooth loss.
  3. Fresh Breath: Good dental hygiene helps to prevent bad breath, which can be caused by the buildup of bacteria in the mouth.
  4. Overall Health: Poor dental hygiene has been linked to a number of health problems, including heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Good dental hygiene helps to reduce the risk of these and other health problems.

What about the people in ancient times? How did they manage to take care of their dental health? Let’s take a quick look at different practices around the world.

Dental hygiene in ancient times – around the world

Dental hygiene practices using natural ingredients have been found in several parts of the world, including:


Indigenous peoples across Africa had their own traditional methods for maintaining dental health. For example, the Maasai tribe in Kenya and Tanzania used sticks from the arbor tree to clean their teeth, while the Himba people in Namibia used a mixture of crushed tree bark and charcoal to brush their teeth.

Some African tribes also used natural remedies to treat toothaches, such as chewing on garlic or using a paste made from ginger and salt.

Ancient Egypt

Egyptians used a mixture of salt, pepper, and mint to clean their teeth, and they also used twigs from the Salvadora persica tree (also known as the “toothbrush tree”) to clean their teeth.

China and Southeast Asia

Traditional dental health practices in China and Southeast Asia include the use of natural remedies such as herbs and roots.

For example, people in China have used ginseng and green tea to promote dental health and fresh breath for centuries.

In Southeast Asia, the use of betel leaf, which contains antiseptic properties, was a common practice for cleaning teeth and freshening breath.

Additionally, traditional Chinese medicine includes acupuncture and acupressure points that can be used to relieve tooth pain and other dental problems.

Ancient india

Ancient Indians used various methods to take care of their dental hygiene. One such method was the use of twigs from specific trees, such as neem, banyan, and mango, which were chewed on one end to create a brush-like tip. These twigs were believed to have antibacterial properties and were used to clean teeth and freshen breath.

Another method was the use of herbal tooth powders made from ingredients such as cinnamon, salt, and alum. These powders were applied to the teeth and gums using a finger or brush.
More information about dental health in India

Additionally, oil pulling, or swishing oil (such as sesame or coconut) in the mouth for several minutes, was also a common practice for oral hygiene.

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Ancient Greece and Rome

The Greeks and Romans used a variety of natural ingredients for dental hygiene, including charcoal, myrrh, and frankincense.

Ancient Romans used urine as a mouthwash

Source 1 & Source 2

People in ancient Greece also used a mixture of alum and honey to clean their teeth and freshen their breath, while ancient Romans used urine as a mouthwash (due to its high ammonia content).

Yes, that is a historical fact. The ancient Romans did use urine as a mouthwash, among other uses, due to its high ammonia content. This may seem strange to us today, but it was a common practice in ancient times when people had limited knowledge and resources for maintaining oral health.

The Greeks and Egyptians, also used various substances for dental hygiene, including crushed bones, eggshells, and ashes. It’s important to note that while these practices may seem strange or unappealing to us now, they were based on the limited knowledge and resources available at the time, and were considered effective by the people who used them.


In ancient Europe, dental hygiene practices were limited, and tooth decay was a common problem.

During the Middle Ages, people in Europe used a variety of natural remedies to treat toothaches and other dental problems, such as using a mixture of salt and pepper or placing a piece of raw onion on the affected tooth.

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North America

Sage was used by several Indigenous groups in North America, such as the Navajo and Pueblo tribes, as a natural antiseptic to clean their teeth and gums. Chamomile was also used by some groups, such as the Cherokee, as a natural remedy for toothaches and gum inflammation.

Indigenous groups in North America, such as the Inuit (Eskimo) and First Nations tribes in Canada, had their own unique dental health practices. The Inuit, who lived in the Arctic region, did not have access to plants for cleaning their teeth, so they used a traditional method of chewing on animal hides or sinews to keep their teeth clean.

It is important to note that the use of specific plants for dental health varied depending on the region and cultural practices of each group.

South America

Dental hygiene practices in South America vary by country and region.

In some areas, natural remedies like herbs and bark are still used, while in others, modern dental hygiene products are more common.

The Indigenous peoples of the Amazon rainforest also had their own methods for maintaining dental health. For example, the Yanomami tribe in Brazil and Venezuela used a mixture of crushed tree bark and charcoal to clean their teeth, while the Matsés tribe used a type of vine with antiseptic properties to rinse their mouths and promote oral health.

In ancient Peru, people used to chew on coca leaves to clean their teeth.

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Caribbean Islands

The Indigenous peoples of the Caribbean Islands, such as the Taíno and Carib, used various natural methods to maintain their dental health. For example, the Taíno used a mixture of crushed seashells and plant ashes to clean their teeth, while the Carib chewed on guava leaves to freshen their breath and promote dental health.


Aboriginal people in Australia traditionally used chew sticks made from twigs of the tea tree plant, which contains antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties. They also used clay from termite mounds as a toothpaste, which helped to remove plaque and bacteria. In addition, some Aboriginal groups used eucalyptus leaves to freshen breath and as an antiseptic.

New Zealand

The Māori people of New Zealand used a variety of natural materials to maintain their dental health, such as horopito leaves, which have antibacterial properties, and the roots of the kūmarahou plant, which were used as a natural toothbrush. The sap of the kawakawa tree was also used to treat toothaches and other dental problems.

Other Pacific Islands

Indigenous peoples on other Pacific Islands, such as Fiji and Samoa, also had their own traditional dental health practices. For example, in Samoa, coconut oil was used for oil pulling, which involves swishing oil in the mouth to remove bacteria and improve oral health. In Fiji, the bark of the Dilo tree was used to treat toothaches and gum infections.

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How did modern toothpaste evolve?

Toothpaste as we know it today was first developed in the 19th century.

The earliest recorded recipe for a modern toothpaste was created by a British physician named Dr. Washington Wentworth Sheffield in the 1850s.

Dr. Sheffield’s toothpaste was a powdery substance made from chalk and soap, and it was sold in a jar. Other early toothpaste formulations included a mixture of baking soda and hydrogen peroxide, which was used as a tooth powder.

In the early 20th century, toothpaste began to be sold in tubes, which made it more convenient and hygienic to use. In the 1950s, the first fluoride toothpaste was introduced, which helped to reduce tooth decay.

The widespread adoption of toothpaste was initially slow, due to several factors. One was the cost – early toothpaste formulations were expensive and not accessible to everyone.

Another factor was the lack of education around dental hygiene – many people didn’t understand the importance of brushing their teeth regularly.

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Brushing teeth in the USA

Let us take a look at how dental hygiene was practiced in the US of A for more context, as it is a country well known to be one of the most technological advances but a relatively new nation.

During the recruitment of soldiers for World War I in the US army, it was found that many potential recruits had poor dental hygiene. This was a concern for the army because soldiers with bad teeth were more likely to develop infections and other health problems.

In the early 1900s barely 7% of the US population brushed their teeth. Thanks to an innovative campaign by a start adverting executive, it went up to 65% within a decade – and a star Pepsodent was born!

Pepsodent Vintage Ad
Pepsodent Advertisement – from an old newspaper

Read more about it below:


Read more about the Pepsodent Ad Campaign and how it has an important lesson on The Power Of Habit!

However, as dental health education campaigns became more widespread and toothpaste became more affordable, the use of toothpaste and toothbrushes became more common.

Today, toothpaste is widely used around the world, and there are many different brands and formulations available to suit different needs and preferences.

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Image at the top –

Photo by Loren Joseph on Unsplash

Dark Stories Did You Know History

Portuguese Inquisition In India

Table of Contents


The Portuguese Inquisition in India was a brutal and horrific period of religious persecution that began in the 16th century and lasted for over 250 years. The Inquisition was established to enforce religious conformity among the population and was modeled after the Spanish Inquisition.

The Inquisition targeted Jews, Muslims, and Hindus, forcing them to convert to Christianity or face severe punishments, including unspeakable torture and cruel death sentences.

Many people were accused of being heretics or secret Jews and were subjected to brutal interrogations and trials.

The Inquisition had a profound impact on Indian society and culture, as it also included the destruction of many ancient temples and religious sites, and forced many people to flee their homes and communities. It also resulted in the loss of many important historical and cultural artifacts.

The Inquisition was finally abolished in 1821, but its legacy continues to impact India to this day.

The Portuguese In India

The Portuguese Empire conquered the province of Goa in 1510 CE, and made it the capital of Portuguese India.

The video with an overview

The Portuguese Inquisition – The atrocities in Goa, India – Source OddCompass
Video with more details – a descendant’s account
The Goan Inquisition – a descendant’s account

The Inquisition – a high level summary

In 1560 CE, the Portuguese brought their Catholic Inquisition to Goa to establish a Catholic stronghold in Asia where religious laws would be strictly enforced.
Goa Inquisition – Source

What we know about the inquisition has been lost due to the destruction of records by the Portuguese government in 1821 when the inquisition was abolished

Everyone is affected

Both natives and Portuguese settlers were subject to extreme punishment, including imprisonment, torture, and even death by immolation. The Goan Inquisition created a persecution hell, and many people fled for India hoping to escape persecution.

The Portuguese inquisition became a theocratic arm of the state subject to the authority of the king, and it served a political function as well, censoring books, attacking political dissidents, banning non-standard cultural practices, and more.

Policies regarding Indian Muslims were oppressive, though mosques were not outright destroyed in the pre-inquisition era.

The Portuguese also established an inquisition in Goa which lasted for nearly three centuries and was characterized by oppression and bloodshed.

Hidden History
The Inquisitor

The Goan Inquisition was jump-started in 1543 CE with the arrival of Saint Francis Xavier, co-founder of the Jesuits. The Inquisition had an influence on colonial administration, and Portuguese religious and secular infrastructure was deployed to destroy the enemies of the Inquisition.
A saint to some – but not to those he tortured – Source

The Goan Inquisition was a period of intense religious persecution in which the Portuguese targeted Jews, Hindu and Muslim converts to Christianity, and Hindus in an effort to expunge native culture and religion and incentivize conversion to Christianity.

Those convicted of religious crimes were subject to fines, public whipping, imprisonment, torture, execution, and burning alive at the stake. The Portuguese even banned Jews from Goa outright, causing an exodus of Jewish new Christians to the Malabar coast and the Middle East.

The target of the Inquisition

The Inquisition’s primary target was Hindus, and sweeping anti-Hindu laws were imposed by the colonial administration, including the outlawing of open practice of Hinduism and prohibitions against constructing new temples or repairing damaged ones.

The oppression led to a mass exodus of non-Christians out of Goa, and even those who converted to Christianity faced restrictions from maintaining their old customs.

The persecution resulted in the loss of well-connected merchants, formerly Jewish new Christians, and Hindus, which ultimately crippled the competitive ability of the Portuguese in India.

Warning – this section has graphic information about the tortures

Some of the the documented atrocities from the article above:

Conversion method

M. D. David, author of Western Colonialism in Asia and Christianity, writes: “…A particularly grave abuse was practiced in Goa in the form of ‘mass baptism’ and what went before it. The practice was begun by the Jesuits and was initiated by the Franciscans also. The Jesuits staged an annual mass baptism on the Feast of the Conversion of St. Paul (January 25), and in order to secure as many neophytes as possible, a few days before the ceremony the Jesuits would go through the streets of the Hindu quarter in pairs, accompanied by their African slaves, whom they would urge to seize the Hindus. When the blacks caught up a fugitive, they would smear his lips with a piece of beef, making him an ‘untouchable’ among his people. Conversion to Christianity was then his only option.

The below examples do not include seizure of lands, property, destruction of temples, banning of local religion, books, traditional customs and what would be considered run of the mill sexual assault, torture & executions. So read with caution.

Unspeakable atrocities

The Archbishop living on the banks of the Ethora said in a lecture that, “The post of Inquiry Commission in Goa is regarded as holy.” Thus, the Indian ladies who opposed or resisted the sexual advances of the assistants of the commission were put behind bars and then forcibly used by them to satisfy their carnal desires. Then they were burnt alive as opponents or heretics of the established tenets of the Catholic Church.

Mentions in Literature

Also, the famous writer of the 19th century, Alexandre Herculano, wrote in his book, Fragment about the Inquisition, how no one was excused from the tortures of the Inquisition: “… the terrors inflicted on pregnant women made them abort… Neither the beauty nor decorousness of the flower of youth, nor the old age, so worthy of compassion in a woman, exempted the weaker sex from the brutal ferocity of the supposed defenders of the religion… There were days when seven or eight were submitted torture.”

Paul William Roberts, in Empire of the Soul, Some Journeys in India, writes about the methods of the Portuguese Inquisition: “Children were flogged and slowly dismembered in front of their parents whose eyelids had been sliced off to make sure they missed nothing. Extremities were amputated carefully, so that a person could remain conscious even when all that remained was a torso and a head… Those subjected to other diabolical tortures could also be counted in the thousands and the abominations continued until a brief respite in 1774… The evil resumed, continuing, almost incredibly, until June 16, 1812. At that point, British pressure put an end to terror (with) the presence of British troops stationed in Goa.”

Dr. Trasta Breganka Kunha, a Catholic citizen of Goa, had written: “In spite of all the mutilations and concealment of history, it remains an undoubted fact that religious conversion of Goans is due to methods of force by the Portuguese to establish their rule. As a result of this violence the character of our people was destroyed. The propagation of Christian sect in Goa came about not by religious preaching but through methods of violence and pressure. If any evidence is needed for this fact, we can obtain it through law books, orders and reports of the local rulers of that time and also from the most dependable documents of the Christian sect.”

The article linked above has more sources in it.

The top image is also from that article

A more detailed article

Translation of the book by a French Doctor written during the Inquisition in India

A recap of the Portuguese Inquisition

The Portuguese arrived in Goa in the early 16th century and established a trading post. They also brought with them their religion, which eventually made Goa less attractive as a trade center.

The Dutch were able to take advantage of this and became the dominant European trading force in the subcontinent.

The Portuguese also established an inquisition in Goa which lasted for nearly three centuries and was characterized by oppression and bloodshed.

Sadly, much of what we know about the inquisition has been lost due to the destruction of records by the Portuguese government in 1821 when the inquisition was abolished. The terror and oppression brought by the inquisition will never be forgotten.

History Stories

The Chola Empire

Table of Contents


Southern India’s ancient history is quite interesting but literally unknown and deserves a closer look.

This post provides an informative look into the history and cultural legacy of the Chola Empire, highlighting its lasting impact on South India and Southeast Asia.

It delves into the Cholas’ impressive military and economic power, which allowed them to expand their influence beyond South India and establish a vast maritime trade network throughout Southeast Asia.

The Cholas

The Cholas were a dynasty with a medieval empire from the southern part of India that dominated their contemporaries in India and Southeast Asia and established extensive intercontinental trade networks.

The Chola dynasty was established in the Kaveri River Delta around 300 BCE, and the empire was reliant on the sea for its wealth from the beginning.

Here is a video which gives a quick overview about one of the greatest Southern Empires – The Cholas!

The Video Story

The South Indian Dynasty with Ambition – The Cholas – Source OddCompass

Governance and Administration

The Cholas underwent a Golden Age in the medieval era, with Tamil arts, culture, and language flourishing. Their government administration was centralized and improved, and the Cholas kept copious records from administrative reports to legal disputes to internal reviews of official misconduct. The Cholas also introduced elected councils, whose officials were subject to regular auditing, undercutting the role of local feudatories, consolidating Chola power, and creating the infrastructure necessary to maintain a large, well-run empire.

Raja Raja Chola
Raja Raja Chola

Raja Raja Chola

Raja Raja Chola I was the third ruler of the Chola dynasty, which ruled over a significant part of southern India from the 9th to the 13th century. He reigned from 985 to 1014 CE and is considered one of the greatest monarchs in Indian history.

During his reign, Raja Raja Chola expanded the Chola Empire’s boundaries and brought many new territories under his rule. He is credited with building a powerful navy and creating a strong standing army, which allowed him to conquer and control territories beyond the southern region of India.

Raja Raja Chola was a patron of the arts and culture, and his reign saw a flourishing of Tamil literature, architecture, and temple construction. He commissioned the construction of the famous Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and an iconic symbol of Chola architecture.

Additionally, Raja Raja Chola is known for his administrative reforms, including improvements to irrigation systems, trade and commerce, and the establishment of a strong and efficient bureaucracy. His reign was marked by stability, prosperity, and cultural achievements, making him a revered figure in Tamil history and culture.

Rajendra Chola

Rajendra Chola
Rajendra Chola

It was Rajendra Chola I, who put the Cholas on the world stage as Crown Prince. Rajendra led campaigns against neighboring rivals under the command of his father Raja Raja Chola, and together they extended the boundaries of the empire over much of South India and Sri Lanka, defeating their enemies in 14 deep political and familial alliances with the developers of Bengi.

By the time Rajendra Chola I ascended to the throne in 1014 CE, he had inherited an empire on the precipice of historical greatness.
Campaigns in Southern India

Rajendra was a busy man, using his navy to blockade and subdue rebellious lords along the Malabar Coast, carving out territories belonging to the western Chalukyas, supporting his nephew’s succession claims in Telugu country, finishing his father’s conquest of Sri Lanka, occupying the Maldives, and establishing Chola dominance over the Andaman Islands, thus securing a forward base into Southeast Asia. He also installed his sons as regional viceroys to further entrench central control over these dominions.

What’s a Thalassocracy?

The term thalassocracy can also simply refer to naval supremacy, in either military or commercial sense.
Campaigns in Northern ndia

In 1023 CE, Rajendra decided to raid northern India. He marched with his armies to the northeast all the way up to the banks of the river Ganges. On the way, he defeated the forces of Kalinga, and with the path clear to Bengal, he descended upon the Pala Kingdom and defeated them too.

Rajendra was so pleased with himself that he filled up large tanks with water from the river Ganges and transported them all the way back to the Chola heartland to commemorate the victory.

He constructed a formidable temple at the center of a new capital city, Gangaikondacholapuram, meaning conqueror of the Ganges, and blessed it with his pillaged holy water.

The Maritime Silk Road

The Cholas’ control over the maritime Silk Road was invaluable, and their military and administrative dominance gave them the ability to position their economic machinery more favorably in the global markets. The Chola military offensives were part of the strategy to suppress rivals that might otherwise compromise their supremacy over the maritime Silk Road trade. It is hardly a coincidence that nearly a half-century of conflict led to Chola domination over Southeast Asian trade networks.

Conquests in South East Asia

The Chola Dynasty was one of the most dominant powers in South India during the medieval period. Their influence extended beyond their mainland borders and reached the Southeast Asian region. The Cholas were renowned for their naval power, and they had established their dominance over the maritime Silk Road trade routes.

However, in the early 11th century, a powerful kingdom called Srivijaya emerged in the Malay Archipelago. This kingdom started interfering with Chola interests by disrupting their trade and engaging in piracy.

This caused competition between the Cholas and Srivijaya for control over the central region of the maritime Silk Road.

To counter this threat, the Cholas decided to launch a naval campaign against Srivijaya . This campaign involved three major Southeast Asian players: Srivijaya , Tambralinga, a Malay Kingdom based in what is now southern Thailand, and Angkor, an ambitious Peninsular Kingdom based out of what is now Cambodia.

The Cholas were allied with Angkor, while Srivijaya was allied with Tambralinga. Religion may have played a role in this diplomatic arrangement, as Tambralinga and Srivijaya were Buddhist kingdoms, while Angkor and the Chola Empire were Hindu Shaivite.

The Cholas were well-prepared for the war, having imported the talents of Chinese shipbuilders to work on research and development for their navy.

They had implemented critical naval technologies, including watertight hull innovations that allowed their fleet to traverse rougher seas, a Mariners compass, and further advancements in a flamethrower weapon, not unlike the legendary Greek fire utilized by the Byzantine fleets.

When the war began, Srivijaya was the main target of the Chola navy. Rajendra Chola, the leader of the Cholas, split his fleet into two groups – the main invasion fleet and an auxiliary force. The auxiliary force was sent to the entrance of the Straits of Malacca, where the Srivijaya fleet was waiting, positioned to take on what they assumed would be the bulk of the Chola fleet.

However, the Cholas had a surprise in store for Srivijaya. They sent their main invasion fleet south of Sumatra, positioned behind the island, and used the element of surprise to circle around the island and attack the southern capital of Palembang. The Cholas successfully sacked the city and defeated the Srivijay fleet in the Straits of Malacca, which led to their dominance over the central region of the maritime Silk Road.

The aftermath of the campaigns

In the aftermath of the war, the Cholas established a colony in Sumatra, which became an important center for trade and culture. The Cholas also expanded their influence over the other Southeast Asian kingdoms, such as Kambuja (present-day Cambodia) and Champa (present-day Vietnam), through political alliances and marriage ties.

The Chola Empire continued to flourish until the end of the 13th century, when it began to decline due to external invasions and internal conflicts. However, the legacy of the Cholas lives on through their remarkable achievements in art, literature, architecture, and technology.

The Cholas left behind an impressive body of literature in the Tamil language, including epic poems such as the Silappatikaram and the Manimekalai, which are considered among the finest works of classical Tamil literature. They also built magnificent temples, such as the Brihadeeswara Temple in Thanjavur, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.